Ask ten people to describe the types of self-learning algorithm, & you’ll get eight blank looks & one lame comeback – a ML algorithm that learns from itself. If the tenth person is an engineer or data scientist, you’ll get a full explanation. But for most of us, even those who know the basics of ML & AI, types of self-learning algorithms are mysterious.
And yet, we all unintentionally expect to see the results of self-learning algorithms. We hope them to inform our buying decisions & the stories or posts we read online.
ML is a large technological field of study that overlaps with & inherits the great concepts and ideas from many related areas, such as artificial intelligence.
The focus of the ML field is learning, that is, acquiring skills or knowledge from experience. Most commonly, this means synthesizing fruitful concepts from historical data.
As such, there are many different types of machine learning algorithms that you may encounter as a practitioner in the field of ML: from whole fields of study to specific techniques.
In this article, we will discuss a gentle introduction to the different types of self-learning algorithms that you may encounter in the field of machine learning.
Types of Self Learning Algorithms: What is Self-Learning Algorithm?
The concept behind the types of self-learning algorithms is to develop a deep learning system that can learn to fill in the blanks.
The closest we have to self-learning algorithms are Transformers, an architecture which is proven very successful in natural language processing. The transformers don’t need labeled data.
These systems are trained on large corpora of unstructured text such as Wikipedia posts. & they’ve proven to be much better than their predecessors at producing text, engaging in conversation, & answering different questions. (But these types of self-learning algorithms are still very far from really understanding human language.)
Transformers have become very famous & are the underlying inventions for nearly all state-of-the-art language systems, including Facebook’s Roberta, Google’s BERT, OpenAI’s GPT2, & Google’s Meena chatbot.
More recently, AI and ML researchers have proven that transformers can do integration & solve differential equations that need symbol manipulation. This might hint that the evolution of transformers models might enable neural networks to move beyond pattern recognition & statistical approximation tasks.
So far, transformers self-learning system have proven their worth in dealing with discrete data such as words & mathematical symbols. But the success of Transformers system has not transferred to the domain of visual data.
‘Self-Learning algorithms & systems turns out to be much harsher to represent uncertainty & prediction in AI based images – photos & videos than it is in text because it’s not discrete. We can make distributions in self-learning algorithms. We don’t know how to show distributions over all possible frames,’
For each video segment, there can be countless possible futures. This makes it even harder for an AI and ML system to predict a single outcome, say the next few frames in a video. The neural network model ends up calculating the average of all possible effects, which results in blurry output.
LeCun’s favored process to approach self-learning is what he calls “latent variable energy-based models/systems.” The main idea is to introduce a latent variable called Z, which computes the compatibility between a variable X (the current frame in a video) & a prediction Y (the future of the video) & then selects the outcome with the best possible compatibility score. In his speech, LeCun further says on energy-based models & other approaches to self-learning algorithms.
Types of Self Learning Algorithms: How Does Types of Self Learning Algorithm Work?
Essentially, a self-learning ML algorithm is programmed to refine its performance. In the context of ML, this requires a model powerful enough to process & analyze a ton of valuable information. Into this ML system, you feed many requirements (i.e., the desired outcome, such as recognize an image of a cat?), parameters (what the machine needs to identify a cat), & data (pictures of cats & non-cats). As the model processes more data points, it learns? from its previous performance & begins to get better & better at identifying cats.
More Examples of Self Learning Algorithms
A typical example of self-learning algorithms in computer vision where a corpus of unlabeled images is available & they can be used to train a supervised system, such as making images grayscale & having a system predict a color representation (colorization) or removing blocks of the photo & have a self-learning model indicate the missing parts (inpainting).
A general example of types of self-learning algorithms is auto encoders. These are a type of neural network techniques used to create a compact or compressed representation of an input sample. They achieve this via a self-learning system with an encoder & a decoder element separated by a bottleneck that shows the compact internal representation of the input.
These autoencoder systems are trained by providing the input to the system as both input & the target output, requiring that the self-learning algorithm model reproduce the input by first encoding it to a compressed representation and then decoding it back to the original form. Once trained, the ML decoder is discarded, & the intelligent encoder is used as needed to create compact graphics of input.
Although auto encoders are trained using a supervised learning algorithms, they solve an unsupervised learning problem; namely, they are a type of projection process for reducing input data’s dimensionality.
Another great example of self-learning algorithms is generative adversarial networks, organs. These are generative systems that are most commonly used for creating synthetic photographs by using only a collection of unlabeled examples from the target domain.
GAN models/systems are trained indirectly via a separate discriminator ML model that classifies examples of images from the domain as real or fake (generated), fed back to update the GAN system & encourage it to develop more realistic images or photos on the next iteration.
Types of Self Learning Algorithms: Problems with Self-Learning Algorithms
Automatically trained or self-learning algorithms are more difficult to fine-tune, over-fitting can be a great concern, & system stability is also a big issue. Your system shouldn’t be giving you drastically unique results every time it is re-trained. If this is happening to you, your ML algorithm is not stable enough & not learning or getting larger trends in your underlying data. These problems can be harder to debug & fix with automatically or self-trained models.
Is it Worth Implementing a self-Learning Algorithm system?
The answer is yes. It is worth implementing a self-learning algorithm system every time. It will take you more attempts to develop the plan & put it into production mode, but it will save you time & energy as well. Revising a model is really time-consuming. Having a model in place that automatically updates ML models gives you peace of mind & helps methods to be accurate & reliable in production for much more extended periods of time.
Types of Self Learning Algorithms: Lessons Learned From Implementing Self-Learning Algorithm Systems.
These are some personal tips for those wanting to implement their first self-learning algorithms models in a production environment.
- Have a comprehensive data processing ML pipeline in place so that new data can easily be added to your model.
- Set-up a separate model for system training that cannot affect your production models in case training fails.
- Always use a solid metric to test model performance after every training cycle.
- Have a fallback procedure in place in case your self-learning model no longer performs favorably on your metric.
- Always test the stability of your self-learning models. New data should make your model more accurate & not drastically change how it behaves.
- Set-up alerting for your model. You want to be updated on any abnormal behavior. Make sure that the alerts don’t get triggered too often, or you’ll stop caring & ignore early warning signs.
- Review detailed statistics of your type of self-learning algorithms to make sure performance regularly, at least once a month.
- Go on creating other systems with confidence, knowing that the ones you already made are updated on a regular basis.
The Future of Deep Learning is not Self-Learning Algorithm Systems.
One of the key benefits of implementing self-learning algorithms is the immense gain in the amount of data outputted by the ML and AI. In reinforcement learning algorithms, training the AI and ML system is performed at the scalar level; the system receives only a single numerical value as reward or punishment for its illegal actions. In supervised ML algorithms, the AI model predicts a category or a numerical value for each input.
In self-learning algorithms, the output improves to a whole image/photo or set of ideas. “It’s a lot more data. To learn the same amount of knowledge about the technological world, you will require fewer samples,” LeCun says.
We must still figure out how this uncertainty problem works, but when the solution emerges, we will have unlocked a key component of the future of ML and AI.
“If AI is a cake, self-learning is the bulk of the cake,” LeCun says. “The next revolution in AI and ML will not be supervised nor purely reinforced.”